CancerRes: Scientists identify novel potential biomarkers or are expected to help develop individualized anti-cancer therapies
Recently, in a study published in the Cancer Research, scientists from institutions such as Duke-NUS Medical School have discovered a potential way to predict which patients will respond to cancer therapies that block Wnt signaling, such as ETC-159, a novel drug developed in Singapore, and the results may help scientists develop novel individualized cancer therapies.
Wnt protein is an important signaling molecule that helps surrounding cells communicate with each other, however, it induces cancer when the protein is produced in excess; Wnt protein is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of common cancers, including colorectal cancer, breast cancer, leukemia and pancreatic cancer, and many mutations induce the appearance of Wnt hyperactivity, and the search for reliable biomarkers has been a major challenge for scientists. In the article, the researchers identified a novel biomarker called RNF43 that is altered in special types of Wnt-dependent cancers.
JBC: Scientists identify novel biomarkers indicating the development of cardiovascular disease
In a study published in Biological Chemistry, scientists from institutions like Graz University of Technology identified novel biomarkers of cardiovascular disease through the study; in the article, the researchers investigated the key role of dipeptidyl peptidase 3 (DPP3) in the renin-angiotensin system regulated by blood pressure, and the relevant findings may provide new clues and ideas for the development of novel therapies for the treatment of cardiorenal diseases.
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activates angiotensin II when the body is hypotensive. This hormone induces vasoconstriction and promotes a return to blood pressure, while the enzyme DPP3 is significantly involved in the metabolism of angiotensin II, the researchers said. Professor Peter Macheroux said, for example, we all know that patients with heart attack, moderate or acute kidney injury have increased levels of DPP3 in their blood, which may increase patient mortality. However, little is known about the physiological function of DPP3. For this reason, in this study, they investigated the molecular mechanism by which DPP3 affects RAS.
Sci Rep: Biomarkers can be used to detect brain damage
Recently, a scientific team led by the University of Arizona and the City of Hope Institute for Translational Genomics (TGen) identified novel biomarker series through proteomics and metabolomics analysis that can help treat tens of millions of patients who suffer from brain injury and have the potential to prevent severe long-term disability. The results were published in the recent issue of Scientific Reports.
It is estimated that 69 million people worldwide suffer from traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year, including at least 3 million in the United States, resulting in nearly 288,000 hospitalizations, 56,800 deaths, and 90,000 permanent disabilities. One of the practical applications of the study is through the effectiveness of a treatment for brain injury called RIC (Remote Ischemic Conditioning). Dr. Pirrotte’s team used mouse models and advanced mass spectrometry tools to analyze proteins and metabolites, thereby identifying biomarkers that show the effectiveness of RIC, as well as other biomarkers that can be used to measure the presence of damage.
Clin Cancer Res: New results! Scientists identify novel biomarkers indicating poor Prognosis in patients with endometrial cancer
Recently, in a study published in Clinical Cancer Research, scientists from Queensland University of Science and Technology and other institutions have discovered new biomarkers that indicate the poor prognosis of endometrial cancer. This new cancer biomarker and diagnostic method may help effectively diagnose the types of tumors that are easy to spread and recur, thus helping researchers treat patients as early as possible and blocking cancer cells from attacking other parts of the body.
This novel biomarker may help researchers develop novel therapies to precisely target and kill these cancer cells before they spread, said researcher Pamela Pollock. Now we have developed and optimized a new technology to specifically detect genetic mutations that cause malignant endometrial and uterine cancer. This biomarker is based on mutations in the FGFR2 (Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2) gene, which is expressed in 40% of the 386 patient tumor samples studied in this paper.
FGFR2 gene mutations are directly associated with shorter survival and progression-free survival in a significant number of female patients. In early studies, researchers found that FGFR2 mutations can turn on protein expression all the time, while recent studies were based on previous findings. Because researchers have discovered a new method that can turn on FGFR2 expression, researchers believe that mutations called FGFR2c may be used to adjust the prognosis of patients with endometrial cancer and can also be used as a predictive biomarker to indicate whether tumors will be resistant or sensitive to FGFR inhibitors.
BJBMS: Identifying independent biomarkers indicating prognosis in gastric cancer
Although scientists have made a number of research advances in the diagnosis and therapy of gastric cancer in recent years, it is still an important public health problem, therefore, in addition to classical methods, scientists need new biomolecules to help predict the prognosis of gastric cancer and develop novel targeted therapies. Recently, in a study published in Basic Medical Sciences, scientists from the University of Feilat, Turkey, identified a novel independent prognostic indicator of gastric cancer through the study. The researchers say the P2X7 receptor is a special molecule that is thought to play a number of important roles in inflammatory events and cancer progression, and is located on the cell membrane where its levels increase in many types of cancer. fenbendazole powder